Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors and Preventive Measures


Urinary Tract Infections is due to multiplication of microbes inside the Urinary Tract. It can affect any part of your urinary tract be it Urethra, Urinary bladder, Ureters or Kidneys. Urinary Tract Infections are more common in females than in males.

What causes UTI ?

E Coli (escherichia coli) which is a gut bacteria but also known to cause UTI. It is present around the anus that is why while washing the vagina front to back rub is recommended.

Virulent strains of E coli (uropathogenic E coli UPEC) are the main causative factor for Urinary tract infections, it uses P fimbriae to bind to the urethra. P fimbriae is the virulent factor of E coli which helps in colonizing of the bacteria it helps in adhering to the host and prevents bacteria removal during micturation.

What are the symptoms during UTI ?

Urinary tract infection has the following signs and symptoms:-

  • Pain: pain is experienced in lower abdomen and lower back with an urge to urinate.
  • Burning: burning before, during and after micturation is felt along with pain.
  • Fever: in cases of cystitis or pyelonephritis where the infection gets to your bladder and kidneys fever is seen.
  • Bloody or Cloudy Urine: urine may be bloody or cloudy with foul smell.

What are the risk factors of UTI ?

  • Sex: women suffer more than men as they have a smaller urethra.
  • Age: 16-35 years is the most prone age group to suffer from UTI.
  • Sexually active: if someone is sexually active then he/she is more prone to getting an UTI.
  • Multiple sexual partners:- having more sexual partners increases the risk of getting an STI,STD and UTI.
  • Diabetes

How can you prevent an UTI ?

Urinary tract infections can be prevented by following some simple steps like:-

  1. Drink plenty of water and flush out the bacteria out of your gut.
  2. Keep personal hygiene wash your private area from front to back always.
  3. Cleanliness before sex was your intimate area before sex.
  4. Urinate after sex, always remember to urinate after sex to flush out the bacteria if it has made its way during sexual intercourse.
  5. Say NO to intimate washes, sprays, fragrances as they would only increase the irritation down there.
  6. Always wear cotton underwears and avoid synthetic one’s.
  7. Vit C is your saviour during an UTI as it detoxifies and prevents colonizing of the bacteria have more of Vit C during an infection.

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